Diagnostic keys in Dermatology
Review of the work
The cutaneous processes constitute the most frequent cause of human morbidity. Dermatological patients can represent up to 20% of the quota of people who consult daily in a Primary Care consultation. They also represent between 8-10% of hospital emergencies, which justifies the knowledge of the most frequent skin processes by the non-specialist health graduate. In most cases these pathologies do not reverse seriousness and do not carry a fatal course, but due to the fact that the lesions are visible and the symptoms are very annoying, it is experienced by the patient with great anxiety and concern. The main objective of this practical manual is to give a global and basic vision of those most prevalent skin diseases, emphasizing the most relevant clinical and diagnostic aspects of each pathology, in addition to giving brief notions about dermatological therapy. This manual is intended to be a useful tool in daily clinical practice for healthcare professionals who are not specialists in dermatology, helping them to recognize the main dermatological conditions and the criteria for referral to specialized services in those cases where the condition is not easily assessed or its therapy is more specific.
The diagnosis of these processes is carried out mainly through clinical history and skin inspection, identifying elementary lesions through their typical appearance, but this should not be left alone there. It must be accompanied by a general examination and a request for various complementary tests, which will help us reach a certain diagnosis.
Skin alterations may be due to certain dermatoses, limited only to the skin. Its proper diagnosis and treatment will achieve an improvement in the quality of life of the patient, together with a decrease in their state of anxiety as the pathology stops interfering with their usual social life. On other occasions they are due to skin manifestations of systemic processes, where their early diagnosis can be of great importance, in addition to being frequently the first signs to appear of certain more serious pathologies. It is not unusual for systemic diseases to have been diagnosed or at least suspected through certain skin alterations, as well as the correlation between certain skin processes according to the age of the patient.
José Blasco Melguizo
Ricardo Ruiz Villaverde