Nursing in the plurypathological patient
Review of the work
According to data from the World Health Organization, chronic diseases are the cause of 60% of deaths worldwide and trigger 85% of public health spending. This type of disease causes significant negative effects on people's quality of life, being, in addition, a cause of premature death and having negative economic repercussions on families, communities and society in general. It highlights the need to act in the face of the chronicity of the population; It also warns of possible obstacles to the adaptation of the current health system based on the following statement: chronic diseases are the major cause of mortality in almost all countries. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 40% of global mortality and three-quarters of deaths from chronic diseases in developed or developing countries. In the case of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, it is estimated that it causes 2.75 million deaths annually worldwide, which represents 10% of total mortality. Health policies address the need to redirect care towards a model that addresses chronicity in a specific way, responding to the needs of the patient and family in all its dimensions. This reorientation involves having an integrative and integrated vision, valuing the person's capacities and adaptation skills to make adequate plans at the level of health promotion and disease prevention. Currently, the distribution of the conditions and causes that favor the development of these diseases throughout the population is not constant, with the most disadvantaged sectors being those with the highest frequency; Added to this is the growing accumulation of risk factors in these disadvantaged groups that will add a gap in health outcomes. Undoubtedly, within the concept of chronicity, the main diseases considered chronic are: diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular, chronic respiratory diseases (COPD, asthma), osteoarticular (rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis), neurological (epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), mental (dementia and depression), digestive (cirrhosis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) and chronic kidney disease.
Eva Pilar López García. Doctor in Education and Pedagogy. Magna cum laude. PhD candidate in Translational Medicine. Master in Food and Perinatal Nutrition. Health Master in Clinical Practice. Degree in Nursing. Expert in Indication, Use and Authorization of Medicines and Health Products in General Nursing Care and ICT. Diploma in Nursing. Certificate of professionalism: Teaching of Vocational Training for Employment.